Biel izt 1993 — Working Notes 1

Here are the working notes I originally had on <CG>. I moved them here to facilitate editing while I turn it into a readable introduction:
———————–
Working Notes
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Biel FIDE Interzonal (1993), July 15 – August 1, 1993

Biel 1993 was apparently the last of the traditional FIDE Interzonals [(1)], held in Biel Switzerland during the summer of 1993 [(2)]. It was unusual in that the PCA breakaway, led by Kasparov and Short, would soon hold a competing championship, with its own separate qualification cycle thereafter. Many players actually competed in both FIDE and PCA cycles.

For the FIDE championship, there were ten candidates who advanced from a field of 73 players (with 58 GM) from a thirteen round Swiss format [(3)]. There actually were fifteen players tied for the top ten places, but five were eliminated by tie-break (only Anand advancing from those who scored 8/13) [(2)].

FIDE Interzonal
Biel, Switzerland, 1993
Average Rating: 2570
                                Rtng  Ti Age Nat    Score       1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9   10   11   12   13    Perf Chg
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 1: Gelfand, Boris              2670  gm  25 ISR   9.0 / 13   35b= 50w+  5b= 38w+  2b= 43w+  4b= 10w+ 16b+  9w= 11b=  7w=  8b=   2772 +17  (+5 -0 =8)
 2: Kamsky, Gata                2645  gm  19 USA   8.5 / 13   15w+ 32b= 44w+ 25b=  1w= 17b= 30w+  3b=  5w+ 16w=  9b=  8b=  4w=   2725 +13  (+4 -0 =9)
 3: Khalifman, Alexander        2645  gm  27 RUS   8.5 / 13   59b+ 43w= 42b+  6w+ 10b-  5w= 23b+  2w=  4b= 17w= 26b+  9w=  7b=   2717 +12  (+5 -1 =7)
 4: Van der Sterren, Paul       2525  gm  37 NED   8.5 / 13   45b= 41w= 70b+ 24w+ 26b+ 11w=  1w=  5b=  3w=  8b= 16b+  6w=  2b=   2715 +34  (+4 -0 =9)
 5: Yudasin, Leonid             2605  gm  34 ISR   8.5 / 13   68w+ 46b=  1w= 37b= 47w+  3b= 28w+  4w=  2b- 12b= 27w+ 11w+  9b=   2710 +18  (+5 -1 =7)
 6: Lautier, Joel               2620  gm  20 FRA   8.5 / 13   26w+ 58b+ 16w=  3b- 22w= 21b= 29w+ 17b=  7w= 13b= 31w+  4b= 23w+   2709 +16  (+5 -1 =7)
 7: Kramnik, Vladimir           2710  gm  18 RUS   8.5 / 13   42b- 20w+ 35b= 40w+ 56b+ 36w+ 16b=  9w-  6b= 24w+ 17b+  1b=  3w=   2702  -3  (+6 -2 =5)
 8: Salov, Valery               2685  gm  29 RUS   8.5 / 13   50b= 70w+ 24b= 56w+ 49b+ 23w+ 10b= 16w-  9b=  4w= 21b+  2w=  1w=   2696  +1  (+5 -1 =7)
 9: Adams, Michael              2630  gm  22 ENG   8.5 / 13   46w- 63b+ 22w- 66b+ 58w+ 65b+ 25w+  7b+  8w=  1b=  2w=  3b=  5w=   2708 +13  (+6 -2 =5)
10: Anand, Viswanathan          2725  gm  24 IND   8.0 / 13   17w= 22b= 46w+ 32b+  3w+ 16b=  8w=  1b- 21w= 31b= 18w= 25b+ 12w=   2700  -5  (+4 -1 =8)
11: Shirov, Alexei              2685  gm  21 LAT   8.0 / 13   65w= 53b+ 30w= 22b= 44w+  4b= 17w= 27b= 12w= 28b+  1w=  5b- 21w+   2680  -1  (+4 -1 =8)
12: Epishin, Vladimir           2655  gm  28 RUS   8.0 / 13   18b= 35w= 40b= 42w= 41b= 37w= 49b+ 38w+ 11b=  5w= 23b= 13w+ 10b=   2688  +5  (+3 -0 =10)
13: Sokolov, Ivan               2610  gm  25 NED   8.0 / 13   67w+ 28b= 57w+ 16b- 21w= 22b= 36w= 31b= 37w+  6w= 35b+ 12b- 33w+   2665  +9  (+5 -2 =6)
14: Ivanchuk, Vassily           2705  gm  24 UKR   8.0 / 13   22w= 17b= 21w= 65b= 32w= 44b= 15w+ 36b= 28w= 27b= 29w+ 23b= 31w+   2678  -5  (+3 -0 =10)
15: Lputian, Smbat G            2565  gm  35 ARM   8.0 / 13    2b- 71w+ 38b- 70w+ 24b= 55w= 14b- 56w+ 19b= 51w+ 45b= 39w+ 30w+   2672 +20  (+6 -3 =4)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[[(4)]

Note: Epichine, Lputian, Shirov, Ivanchuk and I. Sokolov were eliminated by the tie-break (sum of the opponents Elo ratings).]

An image of the first six leaders can be found here: http://pakchess.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/1993_biel_interzonal.jpg

Both Kasparov and Short were excluded from the FIDE cycle (having been omitted from the FIDE rating list). Yusupov and Timman joined the above 10 Interzonal qualifiers for a 12 player double round robin, to begin the <Candidate’s Final> cycle, in 1994. Karpov was directly seeded into the <Candidate’s Semi-Final> cycle in 1995, but retained no other special privileges, despite being FIDE World Champion after the <1993 Karpov–Timman WCC>. The 1996 WCC was between Karpov–Kamsky, with Karpov eventually winning 10.5-7.5 [(5)]

Tournament Details

The 1993 Interzonals were held as part of the annual <Biel Festival> tournament, held yearly in Biel Switzerland from 1968-2014 (and beyond). [(6)]

Tournament book by Lubomir Ftacnik and Jan Ambroz.

http://www.worldcat.org/title/biel-1993-interzonal-tournament/oclc/809973815

http://www.amazon.com/Biel-Interzonal-1993-Lubomir-Ftacnik/dp/8090105629

http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/41ObhKuaJSL.jpg (cover image)

[Paperback
Publisher: International Chess Enterprises (March 1997)
ISBN-10: 8090105629
ISBN-13: 978-8090105621]

Here are links to biographical sources for the tournament:

Carolus (always an excellent source): https://sites.google.com/site/caroluschess/world-championship-match/1993-fide-interzonal-tournament

Mark Weeks (also quite good): http://www.mark-weeks.com/chess/9496fiix.htm

Wiki info:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FIDE_World_Chess_Championship_1996#1993_Interzonal_tournament

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Candidates_Tournament#1948.E2.80.9396:_Interzonal_and_Candidates_tournaments (Scroll down)

http://www.endgame.nl/Biel.html (including photographs of playing sites)

Extensively quoting from Carolus:

<FIDE’s new cycle was similar to previous cycles only that for the first time in history the reigning Champion (Karpov) had to qualify for the Championship. As it was agreed before the Timman-Karpov match, the Champion was seeded directly into the Candidates finals. Also if Karpov would qualify for the Championship match, he would have no Champions’s advantage.

Many players participated in both FIDE and PCA cycles. Kasparov and Short were excluded from FIDE and their rating list, and were thus unable to participate (even if they wanted to).

FIDE Interzonal tournament

Tournament was played in July 1993 in Biel, Switzerland.>

If you read French, there is more info about Biel 1993, and other years at Biel, here:

http://www.bielchessfestival.ch/uploads/media/1986-1993_history_fr_01.pdf (PDF)

Note that the city is known as Bienne en francais.

This French language site gives the bracket dates as Thursday 1993-07-15 to Saturday 1993-07-31. The first game was on Friday.

http://www.bijube.ch/page-9307.html

The tournament was underwritten by longtime sponsor Credit Suisse, for the last time. The reported cost was 1150000 SF (~1.23M 2014 USD). About 150000 SF ( ~160k 2014 USD) was redistributed as prize money. The tournament was organized by Hans Suri, who directed it over many years.

http://www.bielchessfestival.ch/en/articleview/news/hans-suri/

Some local coverage of the tournament

Journal de Genève (1993-02-16 p14) – The Best Chess in Biel
Journal de Genève (1993-07-16 p12) – All Chess Elite in Switzerland

can be found here http://www.letempsarchives.ch

* * * * *

A list of all previous winners of the Biel Festival tournament (which is still ongoing), can be found here:

http://www.bielchessfestival.ch/en/previous-winners/

When reading local press in the region, the location Seeland is often mentioned:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seeland_%28Switzerland%29

This may be a picture of “Ville de l’Avenir”, which what I believe was the location of some of the games for the GM tournament:

https://c2.staticflickr.com/8/7040/6777321646_1d6072621b_z.jpg

And here is a picture of the Kongresshauss, where I believe some other of the games took place:

http://www.endgame.nl/kongresshaus2.jpg

Discussion of Essam can be found here:

[<Premier coup de théâtre: le représentant égyptien (Ahmed Essam) déclare forfait la veille du tournoi: sa fédération n’a pas été en mesure de lui payer les frais de voyage. La compétition se déroulera avec 73 au lieu des 74 joueurs annoncés.>]

http://www.bielchessfestival.ch/uploads/media/1986-1993_history_fr_01.pdf

http://worldchesschampionship.blogspot.com/2011/10/of-names-and-pirates.html

Another chess player who encountered difficulties at the start of the tournament was
<Granda Zuniga, Julio E>, who had to forfeit his first round game after being arrested
by Swiss authorities:

<3. Police become executioner

Another curious anecdote interzonal was held in Biel in 1993, where Grandmaster Julio Granda, was arrested by the authorities of that country and could not arrive in time to play their game of the first round, making his successful rival (our Great Master Walter Arencibia) for not presenting a point of South America.

Appears in the database of the computer under the first play of Walter, 1.e4, commented: “Granda Zuniga still on the road” (Granda Zuniga, even on the road).>

It’s unclear why exactly he was arrested.

http://clubdeajedrezrunaxaketaldea.blogspot.com/2008/10/existe-o-no-la-suerte-en-el-ajedrez.html

(Article written by knowledgeable writer going by pseudonym Spassky – https://www.blogger.com/profile/15209925660798004165, keeper of the blog <Runa Chess Club Chess Group>)

To get a complete Swiss crosstable for this tournament therefore requires 14 stub games – two R1 forfeits plus twelve byes (R2-13):

[

1993.??.??  (R1)      1-0   Arencibia Rodriguez, Walter -- Granda Zuniga, Julio E  (B00) 1
1993.??.??  (R1)      1-0   Pigusov, Evgeny -- Afifi, Assem  (A00) 1
1993.??.??  (R2)      1-0   Moutousis, Konstantinos -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R3)      1-0   Zarnicki, Pablo -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R4)      1-0   Hamdouchi, Hichem -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R5)      1-0   Kakageldyev, Amanmurad -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R6)      1-0   Kalesis, Nikolaos -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R7)      1-0   Gluckman, David -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R8)      1-0   Lesiege, Alexandre -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R9)      1-0   Sherzer, Alex -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R10)     1-0   Brunner, Lucas -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R11)     1-0   Lima, Darcy -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R12)     1-0   Frolov, Artur -- BYE  (A00) 0
1993.??.??  (R13)     1-0   Nalbandian, Tigran -- BYE  (A00) 0

]

* * * * *

Using Dutch newspaper sources, the dates of the games can be reconstructed (though 100% accuracy cannot be guaranteed):

http://kranten.delpher.nl/nl/results/index?query=&maxperpage=10&sortfield=date&cql[0]=%28date+_gte_+01-07-1993%29&cql[1]=%28date+_lte_+31-08-1993%29&cql[2]=%28content+all+biel+and+schaken%29&coll=ddd&page=1

[<Tournament bracket: 7/16 – 7/31

16 days / 13 rounds

July 1993

Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
             1  2  3
 4  5  6  7  8  9 10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17
18 19 20 21 22 23 24
25 26 27 28 29 30 31

R1   Fri  16th
R2   Sat  17th (??)
R3   Sun  18th (??)
R4   Mon  19th
R5   Tue  20th
--   Wed  21th
R6   Thr  22th
R7   Fri  23th
R8   Sat  24th (? reported 7/26)
R9   Sun  25th (? reported 7/26)
--   Mon  26th
R10  Tue  27th
R11  Wed  28th
R12  Thu  29th
--   Fri  30th
R13  Sat  31th (Reported 8/02)

>]

* * * * *

Notes:

[(1) The Interzonal and WCC histories can be found at various places, including:

http://www.chessgames.com/wcc.html

http://www.chessgames.com/perl/tournaments?query=interzonal

The <CG> coverage is still incomplete. More complete are the following:

http://www.mark-weeks.com/chess/wcc-indx.htm

http://www.endgame.nl/itct.html (Interzonal)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Chess_Championship

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interzonal

And my personal favorite:

https://sites.google.com/site/caroluschess/worldchampions]

[(2) http://www.bielchessfestival.ch/uploads/media/1986-1993_history_fr_01.pdf (p6 of pdf for Biel 1993)]

[(3) Originally 74 players were invited, but the Egyptian candidate, Ali Ahmed Essam was unavailable to obtain travel funds, and was withdrawn after defaulting the first round. Ibid note 2]

[(4) Swiss cross table was prepared from Carolus’ Interzonal PGN with SCID]

[(5) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FIDE_World_Chess_Championship_1996#1996_Championship_final]

[(6) http://www.bielchessfestival.ch/en/previous-winners/]

* * * * *

1993
Interzonal Tournament:  Boris Gelfand (BLR)
Master Open:            Vadim Milov   (ISR)

I haven’t reviewed any <CG> updates after putting this collection together, but <CG> had 431/481 of the tournament games last I checked. They can be found below.

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